HomeFurther reading

Further reading

American Slavery

Baptist, Edward E. The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. New York: Basic Books, 2014.

Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves. New York: Belknap Press, 2003.

Berry, Daima Raimey. The Price for Their Pound of Flesh: The Value of the Enslaved, From Womb to Grave, in the Building of a Nation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2017.

Fields, Barbara Jeanne, "Slavery, Race and Ideology in the United States of America," New Left Review 181 (1990): 95-118

Harris, Leslie M. “Imperfect Archives and the Historical Imagination.” The Public Historian 36, no. 1 (February 1, 2014): 77–80.


Slavery in the Chesapeake

Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Corrigan, Mary Beth. "Imaginary Cruelties: A History of the Slave Trade in the District of Columbia," Washington History 13, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 2002): 4-27.

Corrigan, Mary Beth. "Making the Most of an Opportunity: Slaves and the Catholic Church in Early Washington," Washington History 12, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2000): 90-101.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Boston, MA: Anti-Slavery Office, 1845.

Fields, Barbara Jeanne. Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland During the Nineteenth Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984.

Finkelman, Paul and Donald R. Kennon, eds. In the Shadow of Freedom: The Politics of Slavery in the National Capital. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2011.

Flanagan, Charles M. "The Sweets of Independence: A Reading of the 'James Carroll Day Book, 1714-1721'." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2005.

Grivno, Max. Gleanings of Freedom: Free and Slave Labor along the Mason-Dixon Line, 1790-1860. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2011.

Hardy, Beatriz Betancourt. "Papists in a Protestant Age: The Catholic Gentry and Community in Colonial Maryland, 1689-1776." Ph. D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 1993.

Jackson, Maurice. "Washington, DC: From the Founding of a Slaveholding Capital to a Center of Abolitionism." Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology & Heritage 2, no. 1 (May 2013): 40-66.

Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Millward, Jessica. Finding Charity's Folk: Enslaved and Free Black Women in Maryland. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2015.

Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. Reissue edition. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2003.

Morgan, Philip D. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Rockman, Seth. Scraping By: Wage Labor, Slavery, and Survival in Early Baltimore. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

Thomas, William G. III. A Question of Freedom: The Families Who Challenged Slavery From The Nation's Founding To The Civil War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2020.

Whitman, T. Stephen. Challenging Slavery in the Chesapeake: Black and White Resistance to Human Bondage, 1775-1865. Baltimore: The Maryland Historical Society, 2006.


The Domestic Slave Trade

Deyle, Steven. Carry Me Back: The Domestic Slave Trade in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Johnson, Walter. Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Pargas, Damian Alan. Slavery and Forced Migration in the Antebellum South. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Schermerhorn, Calvin. The Business of Slavery and the Rise of American Capitalism, 1815-1860. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2015.

Williams, Heather Andrea. Help Me To Find My People: The African American Search for Family Lost in Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.


Slavery in Louisiana

Johnson, Walter. River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.

Malone, Ann Patton. Sweet Chariot: Slave Family and Household Structure in Nineteenth-Century Louisiana. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, A Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841 and Rescued in 1853, from a Cotton Plantation Near the Red River in Louisiana. Auburn, NY: Derby and Miller, 1853.

Rothman, Adam. Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.


Slavery, the Society of Jesus, and Catholicism

Beckett, Edward F. “Listening to Our History: Inculturation and Jesuit Slaveholding.” Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 28, no. 5 (1996).

Brown, Joseph A. SJ. To Stand On The Rock: Meditations on Black Catholic Identity. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2011.

Curran, Robert Emmett. “‘Splendid Poverty’: Jesuit Slaveholding in Maryland, 1805–1838.” In Shaping American Catholicism: Maryland and New York, 1805-1915, 30–51. Catholic University of America Press, 2012.

Curran, Robert Emmett. Papist Devils: Catholics in British America, 1574-1783. Washington, D.C: The Catholic University of America Press, 2014.

Endres, David J., ed. Slavery and the Catholic Church in the United States: Historical Studies. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 2023.

Farrelly, Maura Jane. “American Slavery, American Freedom, American Catholicism.” Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 10, no. 1 (2012): 69–100.

-----. Papist Patriots: The Making of an American Catholic Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Finn, S.J., Peter C. “The Slaves of the Jesuits of Maryland.” MA thesis: Georgetown University, 1974.

Gollar, C. Walker. "Let Us Go Free": Slavery and Jesuit Universities in America. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2023.

Journal of Jesuit Studies 8 (2021). Special issue on the Jesuits and Slavery.

Judge, S.J., Robert K. “Foundation and First Administration of the Maryland Province,Woodstock Letters 88, no. 4 (1959): 376-406

Leon, Sharon. "Re-Presenting the Enslaved Community sold by the Maryland Province Jesuits in 1838," [bracket], September 30, 2016.

Maxwell, John Frances. Slavery and the Catholic Church: The History of Catholic Teaching Concerning the Moral Legitimacy of the Institution of Slavery. London: Barry Rose Publishers, 1975.

Murphy, Thomas. Jesuit Slaveholding in Maryland, 1717-1838. Studies in African American History and Culture. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Nalezyty, Susan. "The History of Enslaved People at Georgetown Visitation." U.S. Catholic Historian 37, no. 2 (2019): 23-48. doi:10.1353/cht.2019.0014.

Rothman, Adam. "Georgetown University and the Business of Slavery." Washington History 29:2 (Fall 2017): 18-22

Schmidt, Kelly L. "Enslaved Faith Communities in the Jesuits' Missouri Mission." U.S. Catholic Historian 37: 2 (Spring 2019), 49-81

Slavery, History, Memory, and Reconciliation, Jesuits Southern and Central Province.

St. Ignatius Church at Chapel Point: Sharing God's Word Since 1641. Port Tobacco, MD: St. Ignatius Church, 2016.

Swarns, Rachel L. The 272: The Families Who Were Enslaved and Sold to Build the American Catholic Church. New York: Random House, 2023

Walsh, Rev. Francis. A Pictorial History of Saint Inigoes Mission, 1634-1984. Hollywood, MD: St. Mary's Press, 1984.

Zanca, Kenneth J, ed. American Catholics and Slavery, 1789-1866: An Anthology of Primary Documents. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994.

Zwinge, S.J., Joseph, "The Jesuit Farms in Maryland: Facts and Anecdotes. The Negro Slaves," Woodstock Letters 41, no. 3 (1912): 276-291


Slavery and Universities

Columbia University & Slavery. https://columbiaandslavery.columbia.edu/ (accessed 1 June 2017).

"Final Report, Working Group: Slavery - Legacy and Reconciliation, Spring 2018," John Carroll University.

Fuentes, Marisa J. and Deborah Gray White, eds. Scarlet and Black: Slavery and Dispossession in Rutgers History. Volume 1. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2016.

Harris, Leslie M., James T. Campbell, and Alfred L. Brophy, eds. Slavery and the University: Histories and Legacies. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2019.

Harvard and Slavery. http://www.harvard.edu/slavery (accessed 1 June 2017).

McInnis, Maurie D., and Louis P. Nelson, eds. Educated in Tyranny: Slavery at Thomas Jefferson's University. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2019.

Oast, Jennifer. Institutional Slavery: Slaveholding Churches, Schools, Colleges, and Businesses in Virginia, 1680-1860. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Slavery and Justice: Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice. Providence, RI: Brown University, 2006.

Thomas, Rhondda Robinson. Call My Name, Clemson: Documenting the Black Experience in an American University. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2020.

“Universities Studying Slavery,” President’s Commission on Slavery and the University. http://slavery.virginia.edu/ (accessed 1 June 2017).

Untold Truths: Exposing Slavery and Its Legacies at Loyola University Maryland. Baltimore: Apprentice House Press, 2024.

Walters, Lindsey K. "Slavery and the American university: discourses of retrospective justice at Harvard and Brown." Slavery & Abolition 38: 4 (December 2017): 719-744

Wilder, Craig Steven. Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America’s Universities. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2013.

-----. “War and Priests: Catholic Colleges and Slavery in the Age of Revolutions” in Beckert, Sven and Seth Rockman, eds. Slavery’s Capitalism: A New History of American Economic Development. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Willoughby, Christopher. Masters of Health: Racial Science and Slavery in U.S. Medical Schools. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2022.


Slavery and Memory

Araujo, Ana Lucia. Shadows of the Slave Past: Memory, Heritage, and Slavery. New York: Routledge, 2015.

Berry, Mary Frances. My Face is Black Is True: Callie House and the Struggle for Ex-Slave Reparations. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.

Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Colbert, Soyica Diggs, Robert J. Patterson, and Aida Levy-Hussen. The Psychic Hold of Slavery: Legacies in American Expressive Culture. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2016.

Hartman, Saidiya. Lose Your Mother: A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2007.

Nelson, Alondra. The Social Life of DNA: Race, Reparations, and Reconciliation after the Genome. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2016.

Savage, Kirk. Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in 19th-Century America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.


Slavery, Memory, and Reconciliation at Georgetown

Bernier, Julia W. “Georgetown and Slavery, from Plantation to Campus.” Journal of the Early Republic, 44:1 (Spring 2024), pp. 87-114.

Collins, David. "Georgetown, Jesuits, Slaveholding." The Hoya, February 9, 2015.

Curran, Robert Emmett. The Bicentennial History of Georgetown University: From Academy to University 1789-1889. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1993.

Foley, Thomas. "Saving Souls and Selling Them: Jesuit Slaveholding and the Georgetown Slavery Archive." Jesuit Higher Education: A Journal 6:1 (2017).

Mendoza, Elsa Barraza. "Catholic Slaveowners and the Development of Georgetown University’s Slave Hiring System, 1792–1862." Journal of Jesuit Studies 8, no. 1 (Dec. 2020), 56-80.

-----. "Enslaved on Campus: Displaced Lives, Families, and Religion at Georgetown College," Slavery & Abolition (2022).

Menzie Lesko, Kathleen, Valerie Babb, and Carroll R. Gibbs. Black Georgetown Remembered: A History of Its Black Community From the Founding of "The Town of George" in 1751 to the Present Day. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2016.

O'Toole, James M. Passing For White: Race, Religion, and the Healy Family, 1820-1920. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.

Report of the Working Group on Slavery, Memory, and Reconciliation to the President of Georgetown University. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, 2016.

Rothman, Adam, and Elsa Barraza Mendoza, eds. Facing Georgetown's History: A Reader on Slavery, Memory and Reconciliation. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2021.


Archival Collections

"Connecting Maryland's Past to Louisiana's Present: The Georgetown 272." T. Harry Williams Center for Oral History, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.

"Connecting GU 272 to SU: Creating a Memory Project of Surviving Descendants Connected to Southern University." Archives, Manuscripts and Rare Books Department, John B. Cade Library, Southern University and A&M College-Baton Rouge

Diocese of Baton Rouge Catholic Church Records

Maryland Province Archives and the Maryland Province Collection, Booth Family Center for Special Collections, Georgetown University

Maryland State Archives

Slave Manifests of Coastwise Vessels Filed at New Orleans, Louisiana, 1807-1860, National Archives, M1895


Genealogical Resources

American Ancestors: GU272 Memory Project


Diocese of Baton Rouge Catholic Church Records

Early Records of the White March Church Prince George's County, Maryland. Bowie, MD: Prince George's County Genealogical Society, 2005.

"How Do I know If I'm Related to the GU272?" Georgetown Memory Project, 2017


Related Digital Projects

Freedom on the Move

Last Seen: Finding Families After Slavery

Legacy of Slavery in Maryland Collections

Mount Vernon Slavery Database

O Say Can You See: Early Washington D.C. Law and Family